Thinking Is the process of considering or reasoning about something over a specific period of time.
Thinking is also the acts of gathering information about how to solve a particular problem at hand.
MODE OF THINKING
1. Convergent Thinking
Also called: Critical Thinking, Vertical Thinking, Analytical Thinking, Linear Thinking.
‘Convergent thinking is a term coined.
‘It generally means the ability to give the “correct” answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity; for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence.
Convergent thinking is often used in conjunction with divergent thinking. Convergent thinking is the type of thinking that focuses on coming up with the single, well-established answer to a problem. Convergent thinking is used as a tool in creating problem-solving. When an individual is using critical thinking to solve a problem they consciously use standards or probabilities to make judgments. This contrasts with divergent thinking where judgment is deferred while looking for and accepting many possible solutions.’
How to Be a Critical Thinker?
To become one takes time, practice, and patience. But something you can start doing today to improve your critical thinking skills is apply the 7 steps of critical thinking to every problem you tackle—either at work or in your everyday personal life.
7 Steps of Critical Thinking
1. Identify the problem or question.
Be as precise as possible: the narrower the issue, the easier it is to find solutions or answers.
2. Gather data, opinions, and arguments.
Try to find several sources that present different ideas and points of view.
3. Analyze and evaluate the data.
Are the sources reliable? Are their conclusions data-backed or just argumentative? Is there enough information or data to support given hypotheses?
4. Identify assumptions.
Are you sure the sources you found are unbiased? Are you sure you weren’t biased in your search for answers?
5. Establish significance.
What piece of information is most important? Is the sample size sufficient? Are all opinions and arguments even relevant to the problem you’re trying to solve?
6. Make a decision/reach a conclusion.
Identify various conclusions that are possible and decide which (if any) of them are sufficiently supported. Weigh strengths and limitations of all possible options.
7. Present or communicate.
Once you’ve reached a conclusion, present it to all stakeholders.
2. Divergent Thinking
Also called: Creative Thinking or Horizontal Thinking.
‘Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a ‘correct’ solution.
By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, ‘non-linear’ manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.’
3. Lateral Thinking
(Using both Convergent and Divergent Thinking)
Also called: ‘Thinking Outside the Box’
‘Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic.
To understand lateral thinking, it is necessary to compare lateral thinking and critical thinking. Critical thinking is primarily concerned with judging the truth value of statements and seeking errors. Lateral thinking is more concerned with the “movement value” of statements and ideas. A person uses lateral thinking to move from one known idea to creating new ideas.’
Further Types of Thinking.
(1) Critical Thinking.
(2) Analytical Thinking.
(3) Creative Thinking.
(4) Abstract Thinking.
(5) Concrete Thinking.
(6) Convergent Thinking.
(7) Divergent Thinking.
Thinking skills are mental, cognitive and strategic processes we utilise when solving problems and making decisions.
Thinking validates existing knowledge and enables individuals to create new knowledge and to build ideas and make connections between them. … It entails reasoning and inquiry together with processing and evaluating information. It enables the exploration of perceptions and possibilities.
Characteristics of Critical Thinkers.
(1) Observation. Observation is one of the earliest critical thinking skills we learn as children — it’s our ability to perceive and understand the world around us.
(2) Curiosity. …
(3) Objectivity. …
(5) Analytical thinking.
(6) Identifying biases.
(9) Aware of common thinking errors.
(11) Willing to challenge the status quo.
(13) Compassion and empathy.
(14) Active listeners.
(15) Effective communicators.
(16) Creative thinking.
CRITICAL THINKING OF LIFE.
1. If you hurt someone, no matter how long it takes, Apologize. People don’t forget how you made them feel.
2. If someone does you a small favour, thank them.
Everyone wants to feel appreciated.
3. If someone takes time out to do something nice for you, make sure you show gratitude.
Everyone is busy nowadays and not everyone cares about you.
4. Most people are very emotional. So, remember, a few negative words can easily break someone’s heart forever. Thus, think before you speak.
5. Don’t ever disrespect something that means a lot to someone. Destroying people’s precious moments in life is vile.
Some only have those memories to live with.
6. You don’t have to be verbal to hurt someone. Sometimes, negative actions are enough.
Body language also plays an important role in communication.
A simple dirty look can knock someone’s self-esteem.
It can heighten self-consciousness especially for someone who suffers from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
7. Be kind always. Everyone is suffering to some extent even if it doesn’t show on their face, they may be feeling hurting deep inside them.
If you’re kind, you have nothing to lose and in return will earn respect and admiration from people. But, if you’re not, you will only break hearts and people will remember you for that.
8. Believe in someone. This might be small for you, but it is everything to someone else.
People need motivation to thrive. Some seek it from people. If you believe in someone, it shows that you care.
Never give up on people you care about. Always be there and support them. It can give them a reason to keep going.
9. People will need some form of help in life. Help someone if they ask you for help, and don’t refuse unless you have a valid reason that back’s it up.
10. These little acts of kindness can build positive relationships and restore faith in humanity.
11. Always endeavour to voice out to things that are unethical, so that the society can thrive while ignorance is kept at abeyance.
12. Take time to think on these issues.